Sunday, January 22, 2017

Justice cannot be blind , NATURAL JUSTICE shall be inherent , CONTEXT shall be the perimeter, part NINE – Capt Ajit Vadakayil



Most criminals are very careful not to generate any direct evidence while they are committing a crime.   

Because of this, courts often depend on circumstantial evidence to determine the facts of the case.


Circumstantial evidence is a fact that can be used to infer another fact.


Most successful prosecutions rely greatly on circumstantial evidence.    Circumstantial evidence often has an advantage over direct evidence because it is more difficult to suppress or fabricate.

Circumstantial evidence is more persuasive than direct evidence.   


IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO FAKE SEVERAL STRANDS OF CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE  UNLESS YOU ARE A GENIUS

Indirect evidence that implies something occurred but doesn't directly prove it; proof of one or more facts from which one can find another fact; proof of a chain of facts and circumstances indicating that the person is either guilty or not guilty.


Circumstantial evidence is based on reasoning and inference-drawing through probability.   The judge must apply his brains ( mostly non- existent ) , logic, common sense perception, and experience to the evidence.  

 They must consider the inherent probabilities and improbabilities, frequently eliminating the possibility of coincidence.


FIBRE / YARN / STRANDS MAKE A STOUT ROPE STRONG ENOUGH TO HANG A CRIMINAL 




In a case of a theft, examples of circumstantial evidence include:----- 
Evidence of the defendant's fingerprints at the scene of the crime
The fact that the defendant was found with a large amount of money without being able to give any reason.

In the case of a murder, examples of circumstantial evidence include:-- 
The fact that the accused had an intense dislike of the victim
The fact that the accused behaved in a bizarre and suspicious way after the offence
The fact that he or she lied about his or her alibi
The fact that he or she was in the area at the time that the offence was committed
The fact that the defendant's blood or DNA corresponds to blood or DNA found on the victim's body.




A judge must be satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that the only rational inference that can be drawn from the circumstantial evidence is one of guilt.



Evidence that the accused and victim had a good relationship is not evidence of a lack of motive, but a lack of evidence of a motive



Circumstantial evidence is based largely on inference and uses inductive reasoning.    Inductive inference is based on observations-and deductive inference is based on theory.


The term "inductive reasoning" requires a CONSCIOUS BRAIN refers to reasoning that takes specific information and makes a broader generalization that is considered probable, allowing for the fact that the conclusion may not be accurate.

Inductive reasoning is bottom-up reasoning; it starts with a probable conclusion and induces premises.

Deductive reasoning is also known as 'top-down reasoning' because it goes from general and works its way down more specific


Inductive reasoning is reasoning where the premises support the conclusion. The conclusion is the hypothesis, or probable.   This means that the conclusion is the part of reasoning that inductive reasoning is trying to prove  .

Inductive reasoning is also referred to as 'cause and effect reasoning' or 'bottom-up reasoning' because it seeks to prove a conclusion first. This is usually derived from specific instances to develop a general conclusion.

Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion  . Inductive reasoning is used in applications that involve prediction, forecasting, or behavior.

Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations.   In inductive inference, we go from the specific to the general.  We make many observations, discern a pattern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or a theory


Inductive reasoning has its place in the scientific method.   Scientists use it to form hypotheses and theories.   Deductive reasoning allows them to apply the theories to specific situations.

Inductive reasoning is, unlike deductive reasoning, not logically rigorous. 


Inductive reasoning is sometimes confused with mathematical induction, an entirely different process.   Mathematical induction is a form of deductive reasoning, in which logical certainties are "daisy chained" to derive a general conclusion about an infinite number of objects or situations.


In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.


Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning.  Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. 


Inductive and deductive reasoning are both forms of propositional logic. Propositional logic is the branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions, statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or sentences.


Deductive reasoning is reasoning where true premises develop a true and valid conclusion.  In the case of deductive reasoning, the conclusion must be true if the premises are also true. Deductive reasoning uses general principles to create a specific conclusion

To be convincing (and admissible in court), circumstantial evidence must:----
Be relevant, of course, that is, tend to prove or disprove a fact in issue
Be cumulative, that is, not limited to one, isolated piece of evidence, but of several inter-connected parts
Be tightly organized and clearly presented: many circumstantial cases fail not because the evidence is weak, but because it is presented in a disorganized and confusing manner which the fact finder cannot understand;
And finally, to be persuasive (and admissible in court) circumstantial evidence must exclude all plausible innocent explanations.



A case based on circumstantial evidence may be just as convincing and reliable as a case based upon direct evidence..   It is important that you approach a circumstantial case by considering and weighing, as a whole, all the facts you find established by the evidence. 

It is wrong to consider any particular fact in isolation and ask whether that fact proves the guilt of the accused, or whether there is any explanation for that particular fact or circumstance which is inconsistent with guilt  of the accused.


SOMEONE ASKED ME

CAPTAIN , WHY DO YOU USE THIS TERM " THROW SOME BREAD CRUMBS IN HIS GENERAL DIRECTION "

WHEN I SIGNED OFF SHIPS AT THE END OF MY CONTRACT , THE OWNERS OF THE SHIP USUALLY WOULD WANT TO MEET ME TO "DEBRIEF ME "

THEY NEVER DID THIS TO HUNDREDS OF WHITE CAPTAINS , WHO COMMANDED THEIR FLEET.

MOSTLY IT WAS ABOUT FINDING OUT FROM AN "CEREBRAL CAPTAIN " IF THERE WERE LOOP HOLES IN THEIR DIGITAL SYSTEM , FROM WHERE PEOPLE ( IN THE SHORE OFFICE ) WERE MAKING MONEY.

MOSTLY I WOULD BE TALKING TO THE REAL OWNER --NOT A TOP EMPLOYEE.

IF I LIKE HIM I GAVE HIM A FEW LOOP HOLES

IF I DID NOT LIKE THE GUY, I WOULD " THROW SOME BREAD CRUMBS IN HIS GENERAL DIRECTION"--

FUCK YOU.   FIND OUT YOURSELF THE HARD WAY.

ALL THIS "INDUCTIVE" AND "DEDUCTIVE" INFERENCE IS ALL LIFTED FROM OUR VEDANTA WITH HALF BAKED UNDERSTANDING. 

TO READ BETWEEN THE LINES OF VEDANTA YOU NEEDED BRAINS--OTHER WISE IT WILL REMAIN AT THE REALM OF " MUNDI OOPAR " --"CHOOTHAD OOPAR " LEVEL.

ALMOST 99 % OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHERS ARE MAD MEN OR MENTALLY LAME MEN -- WHO HAVE LIFTED FROM VEDANTA WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING IT.

HOW DO I KNOW?

I AM SMART ENOUGH TO JUDGE THEM.

MY CHARACTER HAS BEEN MOLDED BY THE HOLLYWOOD MOVIE "MY COUSIN VINNY"

TWO BOYS ARE ON DEATH ROW --AND ONE BOY WANTED HIS COUSIN VINNY ( WHO HAS NEVER FOUGHT A CASE ) TO REPRESENT THEM  --WITHOUT FEES OF COURSE.

WHEN THE OTHER BOY OBJECTS , HE SAY " LISTEN THERE HAS NEVER BEEN A MAGICIAN TILL TODAY WHOM MY COUSIN VINNY HAS NOT CAUGHT WITH HIS PANTS DOWN.

A MAGICIAN IS NOTHING BUT A CONMAN--WHO MAKES A CHOOT OUT OF YOU.

LATER VINNY MEETS THE TWO BOYS IN JAIL AND TELL THEM ( TO THE EFFECT )  -- " I AM SMART ENOUGH TO LOOK AT THE CASE MUNDI OOPAR AND CHOOTHAD OOPAR --DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES AND GLEAN CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE"

THIS MOVIE SHOULD BE SEEN BY EVERY JUDGE--WHO WANTS TO KNOW WHAT CREATING A ROPE OUT OF STRANDS OF CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE IS ALL ABOUT.

IN THE END VINNY AND HIS GIRL FRIEND ( PRETENDING TO BE AN EXPERT WITNESS ) MAKES A CHOOT OUT OF THE JUDGE AND JURY AND WINS THE CASE.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nGQLQF1b6I

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFdJza0AbeA

JUDGES SHOULD SEE YOUTUBE VIDEOS OF "MAGICIANS DECODED " --IT HELPS THEM TO STAY GROUNDED AND NOT BE MADE A CHOOT OF IN COURT.

I JOINED A JEWISH COMPANY ( ROTHSCHILDs AGENT ) BASED IN LONDON. WHEN I WENT ON BOARD THE RUSSIAN CHIEF OFFICER ( AN INTELLIGENT MAN ) TOLD ME " IN THIS COMPANY THEY DONT CARE HOW MUCH BEER WE DRINK ..    THE LAST CAPTAIN HAS BOUGHT THOUSAND CASES OF BEER AND SINCE IT DID NOT FIT IN THE BONDED LOCKER, IT WAS KEPT IN THE FOAM ROOM AND WE COULD NOT OPEN THE DOOR UNLESS 20 CASES FELL OUT"

I SAID " YOU LAST SENIOR LATVIAN CAPTAIN WILL NOT BE REEMPLOYED "

THEN I MADE THREE SPREAD SHEETS ON ACCOUNTS ( MANUAL / SEMI AUTOMATIC AND AUTOMATIC ) SEND IT TO THE COMPANY " CONGRATULATIONS-- I AM IMPRESSED.      FOR DECADES YOU HAVE FOOLED HUNDREDS OF  SHIP CAPTAINS THAT YOU DONT CARE HOW MUCH BEER IS CONSUMED BY CREW-- BUT YOU KNEW IT ALL THE TIME "

USUALLY I KEEP QUIET UNLESS SOMEONE PUTS HIS FINGER IN MY PIE.   THERE IS NO TIME TO FIGHT SUPERFLUOUS BATTLES

ONCE IN A COMPANY RUN BY AN INDIAN MARWARI JEW  Kx  RAJxANxHx  THEY PUT A FINGER IN MY PIE.    I BLASTED THE HEAD CHINESE ACCOUNTANT. 

I SAID " THE COMPANY ( NOT SHIPS INTERNAL ACCOUNTS ) ARE NOT BALANCED . YOU MOTHERFUCKERS ARE CHEATING THE JAP OWNERS AND MINTING MONEY "

THE CHINESE CHIEF ACCOUNTANT WAS LITERALLY CRYING AND BEGGING.

I WILL PUT AN EQUIVALENT BELOW-- THIS WAS WHAT WAS HAPPENING --

Three friends go to a bar for drinking beer ( costing 10 dollars a bottle )

As usual they take out one 10 dollar bill each from their wallets and gives the waiter,  3 nos 10 dollar  notes or 30 dollars.

The bar owner is in a expansive mood and he tells the waiter -- "happy hour time! -- give them 5 dollars back!!-- i will charge only 25 dollars for 3 beers today ".

The clever waiter knows 5 dollars cannot be split between 3 regular dutchmen. so he pockets 2 dollars and returns 3 one dollar notes .

The three of them put back one dollar each into their respective wallets.  Initially each wallet had one 10 dollar bill--now it has only one single dollar bill.

Now comes the perception part:--

All three of them spent 9 dollars each-- 27 dollars total.

The waiter got 2 dollars.

WHERE IS ONE DOLLAR GONE--  POOF???


Be honest to yourself and dont read further, till you figure this out.

You tell an accountant without perception to give you a debit/ credit accounts statement--and see the way he sweats.

See literacy has nothing to do with perception.  A illiterate chaiwala boy in mumbai can make an ass out of you, when it comes to accounts.

Daft accountants make a mistake when it comes to "receipts" and " balance ".

Here in this case it is -   30 + 0 = 27 + 3.

Opening cash + receipts = spent cash+ balance cash.    

It can never ever be 30 - 3 + 2 = 29

See, you cant argue with dorks. 

 2 dollars is something which happened in the mann mandir of the waiter. 

How do you know that he stole 2 dollars ? 

 Accounting has to be objective.

IF I GIVE ANOTHER CASE LIKE THIS TO OUR COLLEGIUM JUDGES –  HONESTLY , HOW MANY WILL BE ABLE TO FIGURE IT OUT ?

ANSWER ?

NOBODY –  ZERO PERCENTAGE PASS !

THIS IS WHY WE WANT TO DO AWAY WITH THIS “UNSUCCESSFUL LAWYERS TURNED JUDGES “ COLLEGIUM SYSTEM –   WHERE JUDGES ARE NOT BRAINY ENOUGH TO GLEAN CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE . 

LET US HAVE DIRECT JUDGE RECRUITMENT OF BRILLIANT PEOPLE  LIKE IN IIT/ IAS.

We need All India Judicial Services (AIJS) — not even NJAC

The Law Commission itself had recommended the formation of AIJS in its 116th Report released back in 1986.

In fact, the Supreme Court had, in 1992, ruled that the recommendations of the Law Commission “be examined expeditiously and implemented as early as possible” by the Centre.

Capt ajit vadakayil

..

Circumstantial evidence is used in civil courts to establish or refute liability.    It is usually the most common form of evidence, for example in product liability cases and road traffic accidents.

One example of circumstantial evidence is the behavior of a person around the time of an alleged offense.  If a beggar was charged with theft of money and was then seen in a shopping spree purchasing very expensive items, the shopping spree might be circumstantial evidence of the individual's guilt.

Circumstantial evidence is used during a trial to establish guilt or innocence through reasoning. This indirect evidence is the result of combining different, but seemingly unrelated, facts that the prosecution uses to infer the defendants guilt. 

Criminal prosecutors depend on circumstantial evidence to prove their case.  Civil cases are often based expressly on circumstantial evidence, when trying to establish or deny liability.

Examples of circumstantial evidence:-
motive (past hostility to victim)
opportunity (including exclusive opportunity)
means, capacity and skills
post-offence conduct (flight, false alibi, destruction of evidence)
knowledge and state of mind
habit
disposition for violence by victim


Circumstantial evidence,  whether it is in the form of testimony or physical evidence may have an advantage--   because it comes from several different sources, which can be used as a check on each other.   

Its disadvantage is that it is indirect: you must piece it all together and then determine whether or not it leads to a reasonable conclusion about the fact which is to be proved— a halfwit cant do it well.

In a circumstantial case no individual fact can prove the guilt of the accused.  The  judge/ jury MUST  find certain basic facts established by the evidence.   Those facts do not have to be proved beyond reasonable doubt.   

Taken by themselves they cannot prove the guilt of the accused.  The jury is then asked to infer or conclude from a combination of those established facts that a further fact or facts existed.


No conclusions shall be based on mere speculation, conjecture or supposition.

In a case in which a witness admits paying a cash bribe to a government official, for which there is no other direct evidence, the steps of proof might include circumstantial evidence to corroborate the direct evidence. For example, the investigator could:
1. Record in detail (when, where, how, why, etc.) the statement of the witness that he paid the government official in cash (this is the direct evidence);
2. Prove that the government official spent or deposited a significant amount of cash shortly after he allegedly received the cash bribe;
3. Eliminate all other potential sources of income for the official’s cash expenditures or deposits, to the extent possible;
4. Interview the subject official, and show that the official cannot explain the source of the cash expenses or deposits, or lied about it (the last three points are the circumstantial evidence).


Such evidence, if believed by the judge/ jury, would be legally sufficient to convict a defendant in most courts.

Intent may be proved by circumstantial evidence.   Indeed, it can rarely be established by any other means.   We simply cannot look into the head or mind of another person.

Circumstantial evidence is the proof of a series of facts which tend to show whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty.  The law makes no distinction between the weight to be given to direct or circumstantial evidence.   

The judge should decide how much weight to give to any evidence and as such he cannot be a halfwit.  All the evidence in the case, including the circumstantial evidence, should be considered by the judge/ jury in reaching the verdict.

Circumstantial evidence is equally effective as direct evidence--as most criminals take care to eliminate direct evidence .  The difference between the two is that direct evidence, on its own settles a fact in dispute (i.e. a confession, eye witness to the crimes, video tape of the crime--  the judge/ jury is not required to draw inferences, the evidence speaks for itself)--

-- whereas circumstantial evidence on its own does not prove anything, but taken in the totality, it is a chain that proves a chain of circumstances the lend itself to guilt.

As a prosecutor, forensic evidence like DNA, is almost always circumstantial.



Circumstantial evidence is a collection of facts that, when considered together, can be used to infer a conclusion about something unknown.

Circumstantial evidence is used to support a theory of a sequence of events. The sum total of multiple pieces of corroborating evidence, each piece being circumstantial alone, build an argument to support how a particular event happened.   

In civil and criminal investigations, corroboration is often supplied by one or more expert witnesses who provide forensic evidence.



Factors  essential to prove guilt by circumstantial evidence:
1. That the circumstances from which guilt is established must be fully proved;
2. That all the facts must be consistent with the hypothesis of guilt and inconsistent with
innocence;
3. That the circumstances must be of conclusive nature and tendency;
4. That the circumstances should, to a moral certainty, actually exclude every hypothesis
except the one proposed to be proved.

The circumstantial evidence should not only be consistent with the guilt of the accused, but should be inconsistent with his innocence.”


Forensic evidence supplied by an expert witness is usually treated as circumstantial evidence. For instance, a forensic scientist may provide results of ballistic tests proving that the defendant’s firearm fired the bullets that killed the victim, but not necessarily that the defendant fired the shots.


Forensic analysis of skid marks can frequently allow a reconstruction of the accident. By measuring the length of such marks and using dynamic analysis of the car and road conditions at the time of the accident, it may be found that a driver underestimated his or her speed.   Forensic science and forensic engineering are common as much in civil cases as in criminal.

Other examples of circumstantial evidence are fingerprint, blood analysis or DNA analysis of the evidence found at the scene of a crime.

Similarly, fingerprint evidence, videotapes, sound recordings, un-photoshopped pictures  and many other examples of physical evidence that support the drawing of an inference, i.e., circumstantial evidence, are considered very strong possible evidence.


Circumstantial evidence normally requires a witness, such as the police officer who found the evidence, or an expert who examined it, to lay the foundation for its admission.   This witness, sometimes known as the sponsor or the authenticating witness, is giving direct (eye-witness) testimony, and could present credibility problems in the same way that any eye witness does



The rule in Hodge’s Case is no longer considered mandatory instruction when it comes to circumstantial evidence, but it still is relevant

The rule says that one can only convict on circumstantial evidence if the evidence is consistent with guilt and inconsistent with any other rational conclusion. Other rational conclusions must be based on inferences from facts and not merely speculative. Underlying the rule, is the principle of reasonable doubt.

Hodge's Case Definition: A rule limiting the use of circumstantial evidence in the trial of a criminal offence. ... " Where all the evidence is circumstantial the accused can be found guilty only if the evidence is both consistent with guilt and inconsistent with any other rational conclusion


In Hodge’s Case, from 19th century England, the accused was charged with robbing and murdering a woman on her way home from the market. 

The evidence was circumstantial: He knew the victim; he had been seen near the spot where she was murdered; on the same day as the murder he was seen some distance away burying something in the ground, which turned out to be money of approximately the same amount that the murder victim had in her possession before being robbed."

Pain writes because the case was circumstantial, the jury was charged that before it could find Hodge guilty, it would have to be convinced of two things: (1) that the circumstances were consistent with Hodge having committed the crime, and (2) the facts were inconsistent with any other rational conclusion.

In essence, the jury had to be satisfied that the only rational inference it could draw was that Hodge was guilty.

While there is no longer any legal requirement for a special instruction to be given in a circumstantial evidence case, the principle from Hodge’s Case remains, and "provides an important process of reasoning that assists the trier of fact to determine whether she is convinced of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt


Evidence of motive goes to prove intent as well as the act.  Evidence of insolvency or debt can be admitted to establish motive for an offence of theft, fraud or arson.
 
Circumstantial evidence of knowledge and intent in a fraud investigation might include, among many other things, proof that the subject, or someone acting at his or her direction, e.g., deliberately:
Altered or forged a relevant document, such as a supporting document submitted with a bid or invoice;

Deliberately destroyed a relevant document, or improperly withheld it from investigators;

Lied to investigators or to another party about a material point to hide their guilt, for example, in a bribery case, lied about the source of sudden new wealth (such lies are known in court as a “false exculpatory”);

Obstructed the investigation, by, for example, instructing or threatening a potential witnesses not to meet with or cooperate with investigators;

Committed prior similar acts, which demonstrated that the acts currently under investigation were done knowingly and willfully, and not accidentally or innocently (also known as “pattern evidence”).

The rationale for the above methods of proof, often referred to as “badges of fraud,” is that such acts betray a certain willfulness by the subject and are inconsistent with a defense of accident or mistake.



Factors that affect the credibility of a witness include:--
The plausibility, or the lack thereof, of the witness’s statements when compared to other evidence in the case (i.e., the extent to which the witness’s statement is corroborated);
The consistency or inconsistency of the witness’s current and prior statements;
Whether the witness’s statements promote his or her self-interest, or are neutral or even contrary to it (the latter are termed “statements against interest’ and are considered to be more credible);
Whether the witness has a “reputation for truthfulness” or the contrary, and whether the witness previously has been convicted of a criminal offense (these factors are often admissible in court to attack the credibility of a witness);
To a lesser extent, because of many witnesses’ legitimate concerns for their safety, whether the witness is willing to be identified, sign a statement, or give testimony.



Cases that actually go to trial are almost always based on circumstantial evidence. It's difficult for the defense to get around a video that shows the defendant robbing



















This blogsite asks the PM and Home Minister to profile all FREE MASONS in India— especially JUDGES, POLICE , IAS , POLITICIANS , FAKE GURUS etc .

BHARATMATA IS MARCHING TO BE THIS PLANETs NO 1 SUPERPOWER IN 16 YEARS .    SHE IS BEING BLED BY DESH DROHIS 

Ask for whistle blowers to reveal ---for handsome rewards and anonymity

FREEMASON clubs were started by Jew Rothschild

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2011/08/freemason-lodge-of-calicut-capt-ajit.html

The FRENCH REVOLUTION was done by Freemasons

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2015/11/the-french-revolution-conceived-and.html


The wars in USA were triggered by Rothschild’s Opium drug running agents --Boston Freemasons

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2010/12/dirty-secrets-of-boston-tea-party-capt.html

MANY INDIAN HEROES WERE DESH DROHI FREEMASONS

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2015/10/the-only-dalit-freemason-of-india-capt.html

PUT THIS COMMENT IN MODIs, HOME MINISTERs , LAW MINISTERs WEBSITES

ASK FOR AN ACK.

Capt ajit vadakayil
..


TO BE CONTINUED --


CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
..

Friday, January 20, 2017

ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE ON CHEMICAL TANKERS – CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL




Hello Sir,
Could you please advise what is the tank cleaning procedure to be followed for loading Naphtha if the last cargo was EDC.
I have received one contamination case where last cargo was EDC and Naphtha after discharge found contaminated in shore tank.
I would be grateful if you could assist me with how to go about to this investigation to trace what could be the reason for contamination.
You guidance would be highly appreciated.




http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2010/06/zinc-silicate-tank-coating-chemical.html

CHEMICAL TANKER CAPTAINS ARE MAN EATING TIGERS – UNLIKE THE PUSSY PAPER TIGER CAPTAINS  OF THE FIGHTING NAVY , WHO PUKE IN SMOOTH SEAS
















               ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE


UN NUMBER/ 1184
Other names / 1,2 Dicholoroethane, sym-Dichloroethane, Dutch Oil, EDC, Ethane,  1,2-dichloroEthylene chloride, Glycol dichloride
USCG Number / 36  
CH2 Cl CH Cl 
Colour/ Clear, colourless , oily liquid 
Flammable/ Yes 
Marpol Category / Y 
Viscosity @ 20C / 0.9 mPa
Prewash Marpol / No
Precleaning / with COLD WATER.           
Melting Point /  -36 0 C
Specific Gravity / 1.26 @25.C 
Corrn factor for 1 C/ 0.000146 
Solubility in water / Slight
Heating  /   No 
Heat Adjacent / 30 C.
N2 / May be required
Flash Point  / +13 C 
Boiling point/ +84 C
Auto Ignition / 413 C 
Flammability range/ 6.2% to 15.9 by Vol. in air
Vapor density  / 3.42
Vapor Pressure  / 90 mm Hg at 200C
Vapor toxicity/ Yes
Skin contact/ Burn and can cause dermatitis.
Carcinogen/ Suspected
ST/ 24.15 dynes per cm at 20C 
Moisture sensitive/ yes ( corrodes SS , check moisture content ) 
Coating/ Check paint resistance tables, attacks epoxy if impure.
PEL/TWA                    : 1 ppm/Skin 
STEL                           : 2 ppm
TLV/TWA                    : 10 ppm/Skin 
IDLH                           : 50 ppm
Odour Threshold        : 200ppm ( Threshold @ 29.4 C ) Chloroform

(Odor Threshold is not considered adequate warning of potential dangerous vapor concentration. Detectable odor is greater than TLV, exposure to potentially dangerous vapor concentration may occur before the vapor is detected by smell.)

Stable/ Yes, but can decompose to poisonous Phosgene
No wall wash required. Visual inspection of lines and tanks.
Wall wash may be required depending on last cargo as per charterers/shippers requirements. 
Always check with Operators regarding wall wash requirements for this cargo as some charterers may require wall wash tests. First foot sampling is carried out.

Tank Cleaning Requirements prior loading:
The intended cargo tanks, pipelines and hoses should be absolutely 100% dry and free of cargo residues. 
Some times wall wash test is carried out to methanol standard by some charterers/shippers (Occidental, Mitsui etc) depending on last cargoes (eg gas oil etc)
Loose coatings, blisters are to be removed.
Cargo stowage and handling of cargo:
Colourless, oily heavy liquid with chloroform like odor.
Ethylene dichloride is a flammable liquid and vapor.
When transferring this product there is potential for static build up. Consideration should be given to bonding/grounding during cargo transfer.
Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin. Affects central nervous system, liver, kidneys and cardiovascular system. Causes irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and is a cancer causing substance.
There are water content restrictions for both Zinc and Epoxy tanks. Carefully check coating makers restrictions for last cargo and next cargo particularly for epoxy coated tanks. 
Comply with special requirements as per IBC code, Coating compatibility, Certificate of Fitness, adjacent cargo compatibility as per USCG 46CFR, P & A Manual, local/terminal requirements and MSDS for the cargo.
This is a water sensitive cargo. Maximum water content for first foot and completion of loading is restricted (Normally maximum water content allowed in first foot is less than 100ppm)

Prior loading, nitrogen purging of cargo tanks may be carried out at some terminals (eg Occidental) to dry the tanks, lines and pumps and to reduce oxygen content of tank atmosphere to less than 5%.

Where nitrogen purging of cargo tanks is not carried out prior loading, it is recommended to blow through all cargo pipelines with dry air (nitrogen) to remove moisture and to dry the lines.

Company’s procedures for N2 purging of cargo tanks/lines to be complied with to prevent tank over pressurisation when carrying out this operations.

Note :
During summer months sweating of cargo tanks is possible due to high humidity of ambient air. Severe sweating of cargo tanks can also be caused by low temperature of cargo in adjacent cargo tanks (eg Styrene monomer loaded into adjacent tanks). Surveyors may fail the tanks with water condensation on the deck heads, tank bulkheads and/or tank tops, as water may contaminate ethylene dichloride cargo being loaded. The 1st foot may also fail due high water content in first foot.

The tanks must be dried prior loading water sensitive cargoes. Prior arrival load port all cargo lines and tanks for loading ethylene dichloride must be made absolutely dry and maintained in dry condition for loading. Loading sequence to be adjusted so that low temperature cargoes (eg styrene monomer) that can cause sweating in adjacent bulkheads are loaded later keeping an ullage difference of about 3 metres in adjacent tanks.

Partial loaded tanks with small quantity of ethylene dichloride are liable to absorb moisture thereby increasing water content.

In case of cargo tank rejection due to high water content in first foot (ie fist foot failure), operators/managers to be contacted for advice. Normally, where it is not possible to pump the contaminated cargo back to shore, the contaminated cargo is transferred to an empty tank on board with terminal/operator/charterers agreement. All cargo tanks are well stripped to the maximum extent possible and the loading resumed for first foot again.

(Man entry to educt unpumpable residues at pump sump is not required and should not be made)

Wear chemical gloves, protective clothing and have all purpose vapor canister available when sampling, gauging, connecting/disconnecting hoses and when handling minor spillages on deck. Avoid contact with liquid.

Carriage and during passage at sea:
Drain PV vents weekly to remove any water collected in the vent line. Ensure all tank openings are well secured and take precautions against entry of shipping seas, sea sprays/rain into cargo tanks via PV vents.

Discharge and tank cleaning: 
Normal discharge and stripping as per P & A Manual requirements.
Comply with Marpol Annex II as per P & A Manual.
Plan discharge so as not to leave large ullage space in tank when cargo is commingled.
Extent of tank cleaning will depend on next cargo.
The cargo tank can be ventilated as per P & A Manual.

After discharge,
For Zinc Tanks : Wash the tanks with  COLD water  for at least 3 hours using portable machines. Comply with Marpol Annex II as per P & A Manual. 
When adjacent tanks are empty and had been washed with cold water, hot water washing at 75C can be carried out to remove odor. Thorough ventilation is required to remove odor.
Chemical recirculation may be required. 
Seek advice from operators.

For epoxy tanks: Ventilate tanks to gas free.
- Comply with coating makers' requirements.
- Seek advice from operators for additional cleaning.

When preparing tanks to methanol standard after EDC, normally not much problem is experienced but sometimes Color and PTT problem may be encountered. These are quickly over come with additional cleaning. 

Fire and Explosion
General : 
Ethylene dichloride is a flammable liquid. Above flashpoint, vapor air mixtures are explosive within flammable range. Sealed containers may rupture when heated. Contact with strong oxidisers may cause fire. When in contact with a hot surface, ethylene dichloride decomposes into phosgene, hydrogen chloride, acetylene and vinyl chloride gases, when heated to decomposition, which is highly poisonous.
Ignited by heat, spark or open flame. 
Vapors are heavier than air and may flow along the surfaces for considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back may occur. 
Avoid breathing vapors.
Wear full protective clothing and positive pressure self contained breathing apparatus.
Keep tanks cool with water spray to prevent pressure buildup, auto ignition or explosion.

Extinguishing agent :
Small fire : Use CO2,Dry chemical, water fog /spray or foam. Water spray may be used to keep bulkheads and deck cool, dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures, protect personnel attempting to stop leak and disperse vapors.

Large fire : Evacuate area. Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use alcohol foam, water spray or fog. Water may be ineffective on fire but good for cooling exposed deck and equipments until fire is out.

Hazards:
- Ethylene dichloride decomposes into phosgene gas, when heated, which is highly poisonous
- Highly flammable and vapor air mixtures are explosive within flammable range.
- Contact with strong oxidisers may cause fire
- Vapor harmful. May cause systematic poisoning through inhalation.
- Toxic by inhalation, skin contact and ingestion. Irritating to skin, eyes and mucous membranes.

Response
- Vapors are heavier than air and will collect and stay in low areas
- Vapors may travel long distance to ignition source and flashback
- Vapors in confined areas may explode when exposed to fire
- Stay up wind 
- Determine the extend of the problem
- Isolate the area of release or fire and deny entry. Evacuate the area.
- Remove all ignition sources
- Evacuate the immediate area and downwind for a large release
- Notify local authorities and terminals

Health Hazard data
General :
- Suspected carcinogen.
- Toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. It may cause narcosis-like effects, headache, nausea, vomiting and weakness.
- Vapors very irritating to skin, eyes and respiratory tracts. Affects central nervous system, liver, kidneys and cardiovascular system.
- Severe over exposure may result in death. 

Symptoms : 
Ethylene dichloride is a clear, colorless, oily liquid with chloroform like sweet odor.
Short Exposure Tolerance –2 ppm 

Exposure Procedures: 
- Remove victim to fresh air.
- Give artificial respiration if breathing stops.
- If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
- Decontaminate victim 
- Inhalation-remove victim to fresh air and give oxygen if available
- Obtain medical attention.

Inhaling vapors at concentrations exceeding occupational exposure limits causes irritation of respiratory tract. May cause headache, weakness, cyanosis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. This symptoms may be followed by nervous system effects, liver damage, kidney damage, adrenal gland damage, cyanosis, weak and rapid pulse and unconsciousness. Death can occur from respiratory and circulatory failure.

Eye contact : Flush affected areas gently with water for 15 minutes keeping eyelids open. Obtain medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing. Vapors cause eye irritation. Splashes cause severe irritation, possible cornea burns and eye damage.

Skin contact : Remove contaminated clothing and shoes while under emergency shower. Flush affected areas gently with soap and water for at least 15 minutes Apply a clean dry dressing. Wash contaminated clothing with soap and water. Causes irritation, rash and blister formation. Prolonged contact can cause skin. Can be absorbed through skin with toxic effects.

Ingestion : If swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If conscious give large quantities of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Obtain medical attention. Causes irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Toxic effects are parallel to those of inhalation. Doses of 0.5 –1.0 g/kg can be fatal.

Chronic Exposure : Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause weight loss, low blood pressure, jaundice, reduced urinary output, dermatitis, eye damage and anemia. Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney, cardiovascular, neurological or respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

If victim is unconscious, do not give anything by mouth. Ensure that the victim’s airway is open and lay the victim on his side with head lower than the body.
Toxic effects may be delayed
GET MEDICAL ADVICE 

Spill or leak procedure
Sinker. Not significantly bioaccumulative. Solubility in water is slight.
Wear breathing apparatus, chemical gloves, shoes and protective clothing. Avoid contact with liquid. Secure all ignition sources. Use non sparking tools and equipments.

Spill/release, no fire :
- Notify Authorities. Isolate area. 
- Stop the release if it can be done safely from a distance. Secure ignition sources.
- Prevent material and runoff from entering sea if it can be done safely well ahead of the release
- Keep upwind. Use large amount of water to disperse vapors. Contain spill in appropriate container. 

Absorb spilled material with compatible inert material (eg dry sand) and place in a suitable waste container. DO NOT USE COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL SUCH AS SAW DUST. Use water spray to disperse the vapors, to protect personnel attempting to stop leak and to flush spills away from exposures.
- Recover EDC and prevent it from entering sea as much as possible.
- Consider the application of foam to spilled liquid to contain vapors.
- Do not get water inside the cargo tanks containing EDC.
- Ventilate confined area if it can be done without placing personnel at risk
- SECURE IGNITION SOURCES.

Reactivity Data
Stability - Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Darkens on exposure to air or light.
When heated to decomposition emits toxic fumes-phosgene, hydrogen chloride, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide etc.
Avoid heat, flame and other sources of ignition.
Non-corrosive at ambient temperatures but corrosive when contaminated with water at elevated temperatures.
Oxidising agents, reducing agents, organic peroxides, alkali, nitric acid, caustics etc are incompatible materials. 











Kannan
January 21, 2017 at 9:35 AM

Namaste Ajit Ji,

MAIN STREAM MEDIA GREATEST FEAR 

After four days, in fear of losing credibility among people, they have now started telecasting about breeds, A2 Milk, Corporate involvement and cases with PETA - SUN NEWS telecasted – 20 minutes speech on these topics.
Ajit Ji – God bless you – GOMATHA and RISHABA Deva will sure bless you and your family.

I am proud to be a part of this movement and this blog. 

With Great Gratitude
Kannan


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Replies
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Capt. Ajit Vadakayil
January 21, 2017 at 10:18 AM

I WANT ALL MY READERS IN INDIA AND ABROAD

SPREAD THESE THREE LINKS BELOW LIKE WILD FIRE TWITTER/ FACEBOOK/ WHATSUP / EMAIL..

TAMIL READERS MUST TRANSLATE IN TAMIL TO MAKE JALLIKKATTU PROTESTORS UNDERSTAND WHAT THEY ARE DOING

IT IS NOT ABOUT TAMIL PRIDE

IT IS ABOUT SAVING BHARATMATA

BJP GOVT WONT DO IT , AS THEY ARE MORE INTERESTED IN SAVING MODI THAN BHARATMATA

MODI IS PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR DECIMATING VEDIC HUMPED BULLS

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2013/07/nutritious-a1-milk-of-vedic-cows-with.html

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2013/02/gomutra-drinking-cows-urine-as-elexir.html

WHY IS INDIA THIS PLANETs NO 1 BEEF EXPORTER ?

BECAUSE HUMPED COW BEEF IS SAFE --HUMPLESS COW BEEF GIVES YOU DEMENTIA IN OLD AGE.....

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2013/12/shocking-legacy-of-mad-cow-disease-capt.html

AGAIN I ASK TAMIL READERS TO SEND THESE THREE LINKS TO EVERY MLA, EVERY DICTRICT COLLECTOR, EVERY TAMIL MINISTER , EVERY TAMIL CELEBRITY AND CM

DO IT NOW

I AM THE FIRST ON THE PLANET TO SAY THAT HUMPED VEDIC COW GIVES NUTRITIOUS A2 MILK ...AND HUMPLESS WESTERN COW GIVES TOXIC A1 MILK..

WHEN QUANTITY INCREASES --QUALITY REDUCES=--- GODS EQUATION ....

capt ajit vadakayil
..

Below:  Celebrating Jallikkattu --20 minutes ago



DEMOCRAT BUM LOSERS USING MEDIA BASTARDS TO GIVE BULL....

 THE FLOOR WAS MADE WHITE TO PICK OUT EMPTY SPOTS AND SHOW THAT TRUMP ATTRACTED SPARSE CROWDS..



TO BE CONTINUED-


CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

30 YEARS IN COMMAND 
..